This is quite a common issue. Since you are on the starter no-one can really help you easily.
When you start to plummet from the planet, press the tilde key and type detach- on two occasions this has then reset me inside the cockpit of my ship even as I was heading towards the ground. Otherwise, tilde, detach is the usual first step in fixing these kinds of bugs. You may find your ship frozen in which case you need to leave and re-enter the cockpit.
I generally ensure that I enter an atmosphere with autobreak on (I switch it on just before entry) and try to ensure that I enter the atmosphere level rather than pointed down, then if I need to jump out of the cockpit I am standing on my ship so can quickly get back in again (this assumes cockpit on top of the ship like the beamme up)
When you get settled, always make sure you have a spare cheap SV ready to spawn in your factory as it helps in dealing with other issues as well (death on floating POI, falling off POI etc.)